Friday, November 29, 2019

A Comprehensive Guide To College Writing For First Year Students

A Comprehensive Guide To College Writing For First Year Students Navigating through the first year of college can be intimidating and challenging for a wide array of reasons. Getting acquainted with the new environment takes time, energy and patience. From getting to know your new classmates and lecturers to becoming familiar with the campus and classes, starting college is a major event in any student's life. This is a new chapter filled with a lot of essay writing. However, first-year students can prepare in advance for their life on campus by researching classes and extra-curricular activities and reading mandatory books in advance. Possibly the biggest change first-year students have to face is the type of writing they are expected to produce and hand in for different classes. College writing has to be complex, structured and backed up by research. No college paper is complete without quotes and references. Few first-year students are prepared to tackle this type of writing. To come to their help, this ultimate guide to college writing will walk you through the fundamentals of writing an academic paper, answering some very important frequently asked questions about introductions, conclusions, outlines, proofreading and formatting. Contents HIGH SCHOOL VS COLLEGE WRITING WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW1. Defining and Understanding Arguments2. Understanding an Assignment DRAFTING AND WRITING YOUR PAPER HOW TO OUTLINE, INTRODUCE AND CONCLUDE A PAPER1. The Importance of Essay Outlining - How to Choose the Right One for Your2. The Yays and Nays of Your Introduction3. How to Reach an Effective Conclusion DEALING WITH WRITER'S BLOCK1. How Talking to a Tutor Can Spark Your Productivity Again2. On the Importance of Taking Notes ABOUT TITLES AND PROOFREADING - HOW TO POLISH YOUR PAPER THROUGH FORMATTING 1. How to Choose the Right Title2. The Importance of Proofreading3. The Importance of Formatting High School Vs College Writing - What You Need to KnowWriting your own academic papers for college can seem scary, especially if you didn't do a lot of writing in high school or if you dread the entire process. You can seek help for researching, structuring, writing or proofreading papers when you have more urgent assignments to attend to or when you're stuck and don't know how to get out of the rut. College professors have higher standards than your former instructors from high school. If in high school you were expected to write either one-page essays giving your personal opinions on various topics or half-page answers to simple questions, college writing might take you by surprise. ​Your academic papers will be expected to accurately summarise and extract important information from a wide array of readings. You will need to prove a full and correct understanding of the subject matter as well as speculate about it. You might be asked to give your opinion on a topic, analyse it and support your claims with well-structured arguments. These are all essential features of academic writing and you have to master the art of arguments if you want to deliver A+ papers every time. 1 Defining and Understanding Arguments An intelligent argument is the backbone of a successful college paper. It demonstrates to your professor that not only are you well-acquainted with the reading or topic that is being discussed, but that you also have your own thoughts about the matter which you can elaborate in a fluent, cleverly designed paper. Powerful essays start with a claim. You need to state the facts but also entice the readers to keep on reading. You can then follow up with your evidence. The aim of evidence-based facts is to support the claim and make it sound plausible. Ideally, when reading the reasons for the claim, your readership should nod in agreement and want to eagerly keep on reading your academic paper. A thoughtful essay goes further and presents the limits to the claim stated in the beginning of the text. A savvy writer goes beyond simply presenting a claim and backing it up with evidence. They think about limitations and thus prove their ability to think outside the box, embracing challenges and objections. By presenting a few objections to your claim you show a deeper understanding of the subject and you also set your paper apart from other mediocre essays that barely scratch the surface of the topic they engage in. 2 Understanding an Assignment While some professors will give you a detailed account about what they expect to see in your paper, others will merely present you with a very general question and expect you to decide the structure of your essay on your own. Whichever the case, your first priority when receiving an assignment is to fully grasp what the instructor expects you to hand in. Are they expecting a summary of a reading? Do they want a one-page essay or a five-page paper backed up by a bibliography of at least three books? Answering these questions can be hard but not impossible. Start by looking at the phrasing of the assignment and decipher what you have to do. Some assignments will be formulated to suggest opposite claims. This is one of the happiest scenarios where the requirement is clear and you have a good starting point for your paper. However, when the requirement asks you to discuss, show how or illustrate, things can be a bit more complicated. These types of tasks don't require a summary but rather a deep and thorough analysis connected to motifs, patterns and reasons. Your professor will expect you to make a claim, back it up with evidence from the text and uncover how the reading works. You will, of course, have to introduce an argument and prove to your instructor that you have thoroughly understood the meaning of the text in discussion.Back To Contents Drafting and Writing Your Paper - How to Outline, Introduce and Conclude a PaperNow that you know what to expect from college writing and how to tackle assignments so that you can ace your very first essay, we can concentrate on finding relevant information that will help you prove your point and make your readership nod in agreement. Before drafting the first version of your paper, it's essential to read the text, novel or book that you are discussing in a critical way. Your objective should be collecting data (which will support your claim) and analysing it (in order to reach a plausible conclusion, suitable for your essay). 1 The Important of Essay Outlining - How to Choose the Right One for You Every writer is different. Whether you set out to create a one-page essay or a 20-page academic paper, you will most likely need an outline to guide you in putting pen to paper and articulating your ideas. You can either create a full-fledged detailed outline that will comprise your main ideas and sub-points for each of them or a scratch outline that lists the main topics you want to discuss. There is no universal method of outlining your paper and since each writer has a unique process of creating, you will have to experiment with both methods in order to discover what works best for you. A detailed outline might require more prep time. You have to jot down your main points and carefully consider how to arrange their sub-points. You can, of course, change this outline later on but it's worth spending the extra time on the backbone of your paper which will guide you through a powerful and clear analysis. A scratch outline is less structured and emphasises topics rather than a particular order. This might not be as time-consuming as the previously mentioned method of outlining but you will still have to spend time arranging your topics in a coherent order and assigning sub topics to each main point. Back To Contents2 The Yays and Nays of Your Introduction Many college students will agree that writing the introduction for a paper is the most difficult part of the entire essay. To come to their help, professors all around the world preach a simple solution: leaving the introduction for last. This means you can go ahead and start working on the body of your paper and leave that one or two introductory paragraphs for last. While this technique is not unanimously accepted and implemented, it does manage to put some students at ease. Writing your introduction last means you already know the topic inside out and can write a powerful and enticing intro. That's not always the case. Ruining an introduction is easy, even if you have the best intentions. Sure, you could paraphrase your assignment but does that succeed in putting across your point and letting your readership know what approach you've chosen? It's also tempting to include an account of your thought process in the introductory paragraph. However, you will fail to announce your main subject and your readers won't know what to expect from the essay. Finally, you could state the obvious in your introduction, but you would end up oversimplifying the matter in question and failing to encourage readers to keep on reading. So what does a great introduction comprise of? It emphasises what you will try to achieve in the paper by explaining the whys and illustrating the hows. A gripping introduction should make ample use of key terms that let the readership know how you plan to answer a question. Back To Contents3 How to Reach an Effective Conclusion Unlike introductions, students find that conclusions practically write themselves. After being engulfed in the topic, after reading, re-reading, analysing, underlining, polishing, and rewriting, a good conclusion should come easily. This part of your paper should be complex and rich. You can begin your conclusion by reiterating your main idea and underlining if there are any questions that still remain unanswered. It's always interesting to leave your readership with some food for thought that will spark their interest even more. Classic essay conclusions often state the importance of solving a problem or answering a question. Emphasise your point once again and possibly identify any further implications that can branch out into different areas. Back To Contents Dealing with Writer's BlockEveryone finds themselves in a rut every now and then whether they're writing a one-page or a 10-page paper. Since you're striving to achieve so many things at once in an essay, you might find it difficult or impossible to start. There might be a multitude of angles you can take and a dozen of questions to answer. Which one is the perfect one and what choice will bring you the highest grade? 1 How Talking to a Tutor Can Spark Your Productivity Again Writing a college paper should not focus entirely on pleasing the instructor and achieving the highest grade possible. Instead, you should concentrate on choosing a unique approach, posing creative questions and finding interesting new ways to answer seemingly simple questions. Once you establish your intentions, you can start collecting evidence and organising it in a neat collection that will help you back up your point. If you're feeling unproductive or if you have writer's block don't wait for the deadline to be just around the corner unless you want to start panicking. Take action immediately and discuss your issues with a tutor. Talking about your intentions, the question you want to pose and your approach with someone else will help spark your creativity again and bring in new perspectives that you might have overlooked. However, don't rely entirely on your tutor to do your job for you. Thoroughly prepare for the appointment in advance. Be ready to talk about your progress and have the outline of the paper with you at the meeting. Bring everything you have written up to that point with you and show it to the tutor. They should be able to get the gist of your work and progress from what you show them as well as from your explanations. Don't be shy to talk about what troubles you or what is keeping you from advancing with your paper. Offer concrete examples and details. Keep in mind that you have to be as clear as possible if you want to receive genuine and useful feedback from your tutor. 2 On the Importance of Taking Notes Keep in mind that you should be taking notes all throughout your meeting with the tutor. Write down suggestions and even outline a plan of action with help from your tutor. While talking about your problems, you might feel like you clearly understand what your next steps should be and how you should approach difficult issues. But a couple of hours later you might discover your plan has evaporated from your mind and you're back where you started. It's essential to fully understand everything you discuss with your tutor so don't leave any matters up in the air. Insist on getting help with the plan and make sure this is consistent, actionable and easy to follow. Back To Contents About Titles and Proofreading - How to Polish Your Paper Through FormattingAn important part of any college paper writing is knowing when your essay is finished and when it can be revised, proofread and formatted. A finished paper should feel coherent, strong and thought-provoking. It should have a logical structure, look aesthetically pleasing and be easy to read no uber-long paragraphs, no long, knotty sentences that run-on for an entire paragraph. Your finished paper should give you a sense of satisfaction. Wait a few hours or a day between the initial revisions and the final revision. This will allow you to review the essay with a fresh mind and eyes. You will also be able to spot grammatical errors, misspellings, typos or ambiguous sentences. Once you are content with the claim you have made and the evidence you have presented to back this up, you can revise the entire text for one final time. In this stage, you can still rewrite parts of your paper that you find unsatisfactory or bits that you feel don't add any value to the material. You should also spend time on finding the right titles, both for your paper and for each topic. Toy around with various possibilities and decide which one is best suited for the text as a whole. Use an online proofreading tool such as Grammarly to make sure you didn't miss anything and that your text is impeccable from a grammar standpoint. 1 How to Choose the Right Title Often times underestimated, titles hold much more power than we're aware of. A reader who will skim your paper generally looks at your main titles and sub-titles. They also notice quotes, bold and italicised words, however, titles have the biggest impact. This is why you shouldn't dismiss them too quickly. Try to avoid choosing a bland name for your paper that merely echoes the assignment the teacher handed out. After all, you don't want your paper to bear the same name as those of your other 50 classmates, do you? Take a little longer to find the right title that does justice to all the hard work, effort and time you've poured into your paper. The title should encompass the key words you used in your text that are most likely also found in your conclusion. It's best to choose terms that did not appear in the instructor's assignment. This will speak volumes about your work ethics and meticulousness. Your title should be a reflection of your paper. It shouldn't bring something new to the table nor use terms that don't appear throughout the entire essay. Don't use bombastic empty words in your title that fail to anticipate the key concepts in your writing. Back To Contents2 The Importance of Proofreading Proofreading (or lack of it thereof) along with formatting distinguishes organised, neat, and mature writers from careless, rushed, and sloppy ones. No great paper is truly finished until it is carefully scrutinised for spelling, punctuation and formatting errors. Confusing words like their and they're or your and you're will undoubtedly make your paper look unprofessional, sloppy and careless. No spell-checkers are 100% reliable, so take the time to read your paper twice or thrice looking for mistakes. If your eyes are tired, you might be able to spot mistakes faster by reading a hard copy of your paper. If that's not an option, increase the font size in your word document and adjust your screen's contrast so that it's comfortable for your eyesight. You can also ask a colleague or roommate to give your paper a read and signal any undetected mistakes. Back To Contents3 The Importance of Formatting Just like proofreading, impeccable formatting will make your paper look professional and organised. Keep things simple and consistent. Use the same type of lists and bullet points throughout your entire paper. Unless your instructor requires otherwise, follow these guidelines to ensure proper formatting for your paper. Type font stick to consecrated type fonts that are used world-wide for academic papers. The font choice of your text weighs heavily so this is not a good time to experiment with new things. It goes without saying you should stay away from Comic Sans or other ornate fonts. Safe choices include Times New Roman, Garamond, Arial, Verdana or Helvetica. Font size the preferred font size for college papers is 12. Don't use font size in order to make your paper look shorter or longer. In the former case, you will use a font size that is too small which will put a strain on your instructor's eyesight. It's hard to fool anyone about the word count of your material, so keep it professional even if you are under or above the limits. Ink colour ensure the printer you're using yields black, clear text. Don't experiment with the colour of the text otherwise, your paper will stand out but not in a good way. Spaces you should leave a single space for quotes and double space between regular lines. Margins keep the margins set to 1.25 for all pages with no exceptions. Not only does this look polished and organised, it also gives you ample room to staple the pages together and gives the instructor enough space to jot down observations. Numbering your pages should always be numbered in the upper right corner. Personal information add your name, date and class details on the first page of your paper in the upper right corner. Your name should appear on every page of the material. The easiest way to do this in Microsoft Word is to add it as a header. This way, if a page gets misplaced, your professor will know where it belongs.Back To Contents

Monday, November 25, 2019

Free Essays on Frederick Chopin

Frederic Chopin, the Polish composer and pianist, was born on March 1,1810, according to the statements of the artist himself and his family, but according to his baptismal certificate, which was written several weeks after his birth, the date was 22 February (Huneker, 2). His birthplace was the village of Zelazowa Wola, part of the Duchy of Warsaw. The musical talent of Frederic became apparent extremely early on, and it was compared with the childhood genius of Mozart (Marek, 23). Already at the age of 7, Frederic was the author of two polonaises, the first being published in the engraving workshop of Father Cybulski. The prodigy was featured in the Warsaw newspapers, and little Chopin became the attraction and ornament of receptions given in the aristocratic salons of the capital. He also began giving public charity concerts. His first professional piano lessons lasted from 1816 to 1822, when his teacher was no longer able to give any more help to a pupil whose skills surpassed his own (Seroff, 19). Wilhelm WÃ ¼rfel, a renowned pianist and professor at the Warsaw Conservatory, supervised the further development of Frederic’s talent. WÃ ¼rfel would offer valuable, although irregular, advice as regards playing the piano and organ to young Chopin (Marek, 51). Frederic later attended the Warsaw Lyceum where his father was one of the professors. He spent his summer holidays in estates belonging to the parents of his school friends in various parts of the country. The young composer listened to and noted down the texts of folk songs, took part in peasant weddings and harvest festivities, danced, and played a folk instrument resembling a double bass with the village musicians; all of which he described in his letters. Chopin became well acquainted with the folk music of the Polish plains in its authentic form, with its distinct tonality, richness of rhythms and dance vigor (Huneker, 41). When composing his first mazurkas in 1825, as w... Free Essays on Frederick Chopin Free Essays on Frederick Chopin Frederic Chopin, the Polish composer and pianist, was born on March 1,1810, according to the statements of the artist himself and his family, but according to his baptismal certificate, which was written several weeks after his birth, the date was 22 February (Huneker, 2). His birthplace was the village of Zelazowa Wola, part of the Duchy of Warsaw. The musical talent of Frederic became apparent extremely early on, and it was compared with the childhood genius of Mozart (Marek, 23). Already at the age of 7, Frederic was the author of two polonaises, the first being published in the engraving workshop of Father Cybulski. The prodigy was featured in the Warsaw newspapers, and little Chopin became the attraction and ornament of receptions given in the aristocratic salons of the capital. He also began giving public charity concerts. His first professional piano lessons lasted from 1816 to 1822, when his teacher was no longer able to give any more help to a pupil whose skills surpassed his own (Seroff, 19). Wilhelm WÃ ¼rfel, a renowned pianist and professor at the Warsaw Conservatory, supervised the further development of Frederic’s talent. WÃ ¼rfel would offer valuable, although irregular, advice as regards playing the piano and organ to young Chopin (Marek, 51). Frederic later attended the Warsaw Lyceum where his father was one of the professors. He spent his summer holidays in estates belonging to the parents of his school friends in various parts of the country. The young composer listened to and noted down the texts of folk songs, took part in peasant weddings and harvest festivities, danced, and played a folk instrument resembling a double bass with the village musicians; all of which he described in his letters. Chopin became well acquainted with the folk music of the Polish plains in its authentic form, with its distinct tonality, richness of rhythms and dance vigor (Huneker, 41). When composing his first mazurkas in 1825, as w...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Questions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 13

Questions - Essay Example He also stated that the importance and allegation of myth depends on the investigation pertaining to a particular philosophy. In terms of philosophical investigations, Plato revealed that myths are considered to be full of errors. This is decided based on the type of myth and the philosophy in which it is being utilized. Phaedo, Plato’s innovative work describes about death and the myths that revolve around the concept of death. It also defines the opposites and their arguments which in turn emphasize on the fact that myths are considered to be a concept which relies on arguments and opposites. Acceptance of a philosophy or a theory and the knowledge of that theory depends on the reality. The theories must comply well with its existence even before it is perceived to become a reality. The special conditions and limits define the way in which a myth is understood and conceived. Metaphysics was named as Aristotle’s first philosophy and it described the universal principles and the existence of human beings. This theory emphasized on the wisdom and its nature and this was explained in a scientific manner. Aristotle aimed at rediscovering the scientific facts which is considered to be a turning point in the field of science. Even the existence of universe and humanity where explained in a different perspective. His opinion about was also different and he made it a point to explain them in each and every work of his. (Cohen, 2005). Myth donned a completely different role in Aristotle’s metaphysics. Though Aristotle was a follower of Plato, his opinion and judgment on myth was entirely different when compared to that of Plato’s. Aristotle’s idea of myth was considered to be harsh in most of his philosophies. But in certain situations, he appreciates the concept of myth and defines it in a cosmological and

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

What are the main changes that the music industry has gone through Personal Statement

What are the main changes that the music industry has gone through since the 1980's - Personal Statement Example The technological development in recent years, has bankrupted record companies with the rise of legal downloading and the demand for live performances. What is more artists who try to sell their CDs during their concerts realized that fans prefer to buy a T-shirt for $20 instead a CD for $10. Therefore, artists now focus their attention on how to market T-shirts and other extra-musical extensions. Word of mount and internet sites like MySpace play a huge role in boosting popularity and music consumerism. Many groups decide to undertake the marketing of their music by themselves and succeed. An example is Take to the Skies which was the second unsigned band to sell out 2000 seats in London. In the past groups often tour to present their music losing the investment. Nowadays, is the other way round.Free downloading is perceived as excellent promotional tactics which will increase the audience and will stimulate the fans to attend concerts. Prince, is giving his fans a free copy of his newest CD if they come to his concerts at O2 in London. Music business analysts comments that record sales are in decline because of the wider music market today - live performances, video-clips, social networking, merchandising - they all influence the transformation of the consumer attitudes. Because of this the four big labels - Sony/BMG, Warner Music, Universal and EMI are struggling to keep up and apply cost-cutting operations for many years now. The publishers are trying to gain profits through different licensing, advertising, additional charges for films and outlets that try to open music stores. An example of the decline of record sales in given with Spice Girls debut album in 1996. Virgin a subsidiary of EMI sold the album for 13 GBP and the company's profit was more than 5 GBP. Today a CD costs no more than 9 GBP, and the actual expected profit (if the label is lucky) might be 2GBP. In comparison, the market for top-selling CDs in Great Britain decreased with 20% in the first quarter of 2007, as to the same period in 2006. The label's hope is that the demand for physical formats will be replaced by the growth of the download market. The last figures in the U.S show that the digital download was worth $ 981 million. The author notes that the music moved from being a high-margin product, into low-margin commodity. Buying an album with 10 songs when you like only three of them is an old-fashioned and uneconomical way of constructing a MP3 player music library. At the end of 1990s a single is sold for $5, today you can get a track for 99 cents at the iTune music store. The authors explains that the creation of the CD, brought it to its own destruction. Record companies manufactured CDs in remote places and sold them as more expensive format than the cassette or vinyl LP. CD burning software made it the easiest task to produce thousands of copies in just few minutes. Yet, another reason which ruined the music industry was the emergence of "file-sharing" illegal websites like Napster in the late 1990s. The industry underestimated the damages that this can cause and said that these activities were no harm to the music sales. The ultimate drop-off of the CD sales coincided with the emergence of the iTunes and the portable MP3 players. There is another fact which blames the music industry for the decline of the CD and that is the free distribution of albums through newspapers and magazines, which devalued the recorded music in general. Live music and tickets for live performances soared in comparison, however, it is difficult to prove that this directly affected the record companies. Finally music appreciation should be something more than just consuming, buying and listening to the song, music is sharing and that is why people shifted from individual at home consumption to attending live concerts. B) To what extent do you agree with the author's explanation for the current state of the music business Justify

Monday, November 18, 2019

Assassinations to Sustain Governments Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Assassinations to Sustain Governments - Essay Example So, Stalin was evidently using all the harassments against his rivals to sustain his government that otherwise would have lost the public support. 2. Sergei Kirov was one of Stalins closest supporters on the Politburo and was in 1934, the party boss of Leningrad. At the 1934 Party Congress, Kirov changed side and began criticizing Stalin and his cruel policies. Fearless ones agreed with Kirov while other less daring ones stayed silent. Stalins position in the Central Committee was under doubt as Kirov pocketed highest number of votes while Stalin got zero. So, Stalin decided to take action against Kirov, the emerging rival for leadership in the Party. On 1st December 1934, Stalin had Kirov assassinated. On the same day, Stalin passed a law that ordered anyone accused of terrorism and plots against the government was to be arrested and executed immediately after conviction (Furia 8 - 9). 3. Stalin feared if Sergei Kirov would grab power from him. So, he tried to persuade Kirov to be loyal to him. Stalin asked Kirov to leave Leningrad to join him in Moscow. Stalin wanted Kirov in a place where he could keep a close eye on him. When Kirov refused, Stalin decided to have him assassinated (Furia 8 - 9). 4. Kirov was a potential rival in the party against Stalin. He used to disagree with Stalin over the issue of democracy within the party. Stalin feared if Sergei Kirov would topple him down from power. So, he tried to persuade Kirov to be loyal to him. Stalin asked Kirov to leave Leningrad to join him in Moscow. Stalin wanted Kirov in a place where he could keep a close eye on him. When Kirov refused, Stalin decided to have him assassinated. He was shot dead on December 1st 1934 by a party member called Leonid Nikolayev (Furia 8 - 9). 5. The assassination of Kirov turned out as expected by Stalin. Whatever Stalins specific role in the assassination of his political rival Kirov, he used the murder as an alleged reason for eliminating

Saturday, November 16, 2019

An Over View Of The Restaurant Industry Marketing Essay

An Over View Of The Restaurant Industry Marketing Essay A food catering establishment known as a Restaurant offer food and drinks to the customer in return for money. Restaurants also offer take-out and delivery options. There are large variety of restaurants and restaurant chains in the world that specialize on the main chefs cuisines or specific service models. Modern age restaurants were established during the 18th century in Europe where the business is mainly serving of food as per the order given by the customer. The first restaurant was established in France in 1765 by the name Restaurant that offered soups to customers. It was opened by A. Boulanger, a soup vendor. The first luxury restaurant was opened in France by name La Grande Taverne de Londres in 1782. Paris was the cultural and commercial hub during the time of evolution of restaurants. There was demand from customers for individual tables, individual orders and flexible lunching times and payment based on the item ordered. The kind of menus also segmented the restaurant bu siness. The main advantage of restaurant pattern is that the restaurants can serve the customers what they want. Restaurants as we see in the present form have supposed to be originated during the time of French revolution. Both revolutionaries and counter revolutionaries were attracted to the restaurants. Revolutionaries claimed restaurants as a means for breaking the traditional common meals, while counter revolutionaries called restaurant lunching to be an uncivilized way of living. The system of printed menu appeared in 1770. Penalty was levied for guests stealing food from the hosts of the restaurants or hosts stealing food from the guests. The penalty for theft from a restaurant was 8 years of forced labor. The most famous restaurant in Paris during the 19 the century was Cafà © Anglais which served classic dishes like sole Duglere and potage Germiny. Many of the worlds finest chefs were from France including Georges Auguste Escoffier who organized kitchen teams consisting of trained experts. One of the worlds finest restaurants was established during the 20th century called Resturant de la Pyramide in Vienna. French restaurants today are usually in one among the three categories, the bistro and inexpensive establishment, a medium-priced restaurant and the classy and elegant ones. In other European countries, also restaurants emerged during the same time. IN Italy Botteghe originated in the 16 th century for serving coffee. Many Austrians had their own steady restaurants called Stambeissi. The casarda in Hungary limits to meat dishes and fish stews. The Weinstube in Germany had a large wine selection and weinhauss offered food and wine to the customers. The economic reasons for the development of restaurants were those associated with income growth, population and commerce. There are a large number of events throughout the year that can influence the business of the restaurants. Seasonal food and that made from local produce has a big trend in the restaurant business in Europe. Another trend is offering special food on special days for example, Mothers day, Valentines Day, etc. There has been special food offered even during the time of events like Wimbledon, Rugby or school holidays. Sundays are often the busiest days and Mondays and Tuesdays find very low business. There is an increase of 40% annual revenue during Christmas and New Year. Restaurants range from simple lunching spaces to costly establishments serving classy food and beverages served in a formal setting. Usually the orders are taken at the tables by the waiter where the customer sits and when the food is brought to the table when it is ready and customers pay the bill while leaving. There are restaurants which offer specific type of food such as seafood restaurants, vegetarian restaurants, etc. Restaurant guides help to rate the restaurant which provide information on customer opinions on the restaurants. The Michelin series of guides are used for rating the culinary skills of restaurants in Western Europe. A rating of 1 to 3 stars is provided and more the number of stars, higher are the price of the food. Another rating guide is the Gault Millau where the restaurants are ranked based on the quality of food, rather than the dà ©cor and the service. Here the restaurants are rated in a scale of 1 to 20 with 20 being the highest. These days, internet sites are available where the restaurant reviews are put up by customers. Chain restaurants offer a familiar menu and dà ©cor irrespective of its location. Earliest chain restaurants originated in Germany called automats. Restaurant chains account for nearly 14% of UKs total catering expenditures. According to Technonomics 2010, Leading 100 U.K Chain Restaurants report fast casual restaurants are growing at a faster rate than limited service restaurants. Food service industry continues to be growing with revenues on a fast growth track. LITERATURE REVIEW. Restaurants in Europe According to the Market Research firm Mintel UK restaurant market is more than  £ 25b a year. Standalone restaurants contribute around  £ 5.4b a year where as the fast-food restaurant sector accounts to  £ 6.7b a year. The U.K restaurant industry employees more than 5, 00,000 staff with over 5, 00,000 restaurants spread across Europe. According to the British Hospitality Association, 70% of the restaurants in Europe are owner operated contributing to a great share in Britains economy. Mc Donalds has the biggest presence in UK market with more than 1250 outlets in Europe. This is followed by Burger King, White Bread, and TGI Fridays. Further players include Garfunkels, Caffe UNO, Frankie Bennies brands. Food sales out-of home has grown to 84% since the last decade. In 2005, the out of home food consumption was 10.6% ahead of 2002 statistics. Statistics show that the leisure spending in eating out is more than in-home grocery bill in U.K. TOP  20 UK RESTAURANT  GROUPS IN  2009  (by number of outlets) Owner 2009 outlets 2008 outlets Selected brands 1   Mitchells   Butlers   775   728   Harvester,  Toby, All  Bar One, Vintage  Inns 2   Gondola 585 575 PizzaExpress, Ask, Zizzi   3 Whitbread 372 398 Beefeater, Brewers  Fayre, Table  Table 4 Punch  Taverns   362 344 (Spirit)   Chef Brewer, Two For One, Millers 5 The  Restaurant Group   350   336   Frankie   Bennys, Garfunkels, Chiquito 6 Tragus   270   267   Cafà ©Ã‚  Rouge, Bella  Italia, Strada 7 Nandos     213   190   Nandos 8   Bay  Restaurant Group 190   381   La  Tasca, Slug   Lettuce, haha  Grill 9 Little  Chef   180   179   Little Chef 10 Famous  Brands     176   178 Wimpy 11 Greene  King 155   238   Hungry  Horse, Loch  Fyne 12   Prezzo 141 135   Prezzo, Ultimate  Burger, iMMO 13 Clapham  House 79     74   Gourmet  Burger  Kitchen, The  Real Greek 14 Paramount  Restaurants 75 75   Chez  Gerard,  Caffà ¨Ã‚  Uno  Ã‚   15 Town  Centre Restaurants 57 58 Auberge, Cafà ©Ã‚  Giardino, Azzurro 16 Wagamama 56 59 Wagamama 17 Ispani Family 55 Pontis, Caffe  Alba 18 Carluccios   42   39   Carluccios 19   YO!  Sushi   41   33   YO! Sushi   20 Orchid  Pubs 40 44   Oriental  Restaurant  Group,   Contemporary  Carvery 21 Individual  Restaurant Group 34 30 Piccolino, Zinc, Bank 22   Regent Inns*   31   Old Orleans Note: UK outlets only. Includes pubs whose food sales exceed 50% of turnover * Regent Inns went into administration in October 2009 Source: Horizon FS Restaurant Brands Branded restaurant chains are now on an increasing demand with more and more people enjoying the experience. The growth of branded food service and restaurant chains have been a significant feature of the growing market. Along with international brand names like subway and Mc Donalds there have been new home grown brands also such as Cafà © Rouge, Wagamama, Nandos, Cafà © Nero, Loch Fyne,La Tasca, etc. All these businesses continue to expand with increase in external funding from both private equity and public markets. According to the Peach Factory research in 2007, casual dining restaurants are top choice in London, where 72% of Londoners visit a casual dining restaurant at least once in every three months and 31% going atleast two times in a month. According to MC Report of February 2010, Pizz Express tops the top 20 brands in UK. The drivers of the brand value are three fold: estimate of the current and future earning of a specific brand, based on publicly available revenue, capital and profit numbers. The remaining top 10 included Frankie Bennys, Wagamama, Zizi, Ask, Bella Italia, Cafà © Rouge and Loch Fyne. Greater consumer demands are putting much pressure on chain restaurants to distinguish their products from others. Restaurant brands have a clear brand strageywhich requires attention, consistency and respect once executed. Brands are usually born from a single persons vision with the only motive to provide new experiences to the customers. For a restaurant brand to succeed its products and services should keep up the promises made through ads and communications. Once the trust of customers has been established existing customers will return to the same brand. Strongest performing restaurants generate more than 70% from repeat business. Restaurant executives use satisfaction and loyalty measures to assess the brand image. Other use brand awareness scores. Another approach is creating a perpetual map of a particular vertical market. The consumers may also be asked the restaurant usage habits like frequency, occasion and brand selection. The may also be asked to evaluate both physical and attitudinal characteristics like lighting, food quality, pricing, etc. It is also important to gather a lot of attributes rather than focusing on very few. The customers should then evaluate the attributes. Consumers can be given an option to choose between two restaurant brands, which is good when the attributes do not capture all aspects. According to Aaker (1997), brand personality can be defined as the set of human characteristics associated with a brand. Branding helps in creating a difference. It differentiates the product from just being one commodity against many identical commodities. People are generally willing to pay more for a branded product than for a largely unbranded product. It helps in creating a connection with people. Brand Challenges for 2010 Discount Vouchers: there will be an increase of 50% in the use of promotional vouchers by diners. This can affect the brand equity and pricing resulting in a lower shareholder value. Inconsistent Delivery: Rapid growth of brands has caused inconsistent delivery. National Local: Brands need to adapt to the local demands Healthy tasty: The consumers are more health conscious which forces brands to create healthy foods. Characteristics of Leading U.K. brands Following are the characteristics of the leading brands that contribute to the current and Future Success. Embedded strategy: A clearly defined strategy, well communicated, understood and performed by all employees, partners, suppliers and investors with main motive being the customer benefit. Consistency throughout all operations: 70% of the profit is contributed through repeat customers. This can be ensured by ensuring the promised services. Culture: A unique and strong organizational culture that holds all the stakeholders together and work towards a common goal Commitment to innovation: Consistently offering new services and products motivates the customer for more purchase. True people organization: An organization which takes care of the employees always gains customer satisfaction and loyalty Ongoing measurement: Measuring the performance through a balanced scorecard approach help analyze the drawbacks and make improvements Changing consumer interests Travelling and eating out are going to be the two leisure-spending activities by the British. Richest 20% spend significantly by eating out. The biggest spenders in eating out are adults in no children households. There is increased consumer emphasis on health, freshness, provenness, authencity and environmental friendly products. Food retailing and out of home market are definitely to benefit. Over half of the Britons want locally produced food and 53% feel that there should be more UK production. There has been a rise in New Puritans interested in health and lifestyle who advise others what to be done and what not to be done. Consumers want better quality, better service and less expensive items which has been reflected in UK casual dining scenario. People under 24 are the heaviest users of casual dining restaurants. The change in the demographics, economic growth, have-it-all society and experience economy all influence the casual dining out market. According to Peach factory repo rt 66% of the adults felt that the restaurants should be doing more to improve eating out experience. The quality of food, the type of service, food and the value for money are the main factors influencing the eating-out market. Women feel healthier eating options are more important. Food, service and value remain the key market drivers to the demanding consumers. Consumers say that most of them want cleaner restaurants efficient service, low prices and friendlier service. Younger customers are more interested in lower prices. Healthy food options and environmental concerns though not vital, but cannot be ignored. Public generally likes and understands branded chains General Classification of Restaurants Bistros -Bistros are relaxed and informal restaurants with 60 seats or less offering French food. Brasseries- These are large bustling restaurants with flexible dining experience. They often serve French food. Chinese food- In Chinese restaurants one can get dishes such as Beijing duck, Shanghai noodles, Sichuan soup and Guangdong dumplings. Country House hotels- Restaurants in British country side where ancestral homes are converted to restaurants. Fine Dining-restaurants with fine luxurious surroundings with linen covered tables and high quality tableware. Gastropubs- Restaurants in public house or coaching inn. They display huge British accent to the menu, but will also serve French cuisine Greek restaurants- Food is prepared using olive oil, grains and bread, wine fish and various meats. These are all complemented by wines or anise flavored liquors. Indian restaurant- Here food is characterized by herbs, spices and vegetables from India. International restaurant- Serves a wide variety of dishes representing different cultures. Italian restaurants -Serves Italian cuisine Japanese cuisines- The Japanese food is recognized as worlds healthiest food, low in cholesterol fat and high in fibre Malaysian Restaurants- Offer culinary diversity with fresh aromatic herbs and roots, lemon grass, ginger, garlic, shallots, kaffirlime and chilies. Modern British- Services quality dishes using local produce. Modern European- Seasonal style of cooking incorporating Mediterranean influences and ingredients Modern Scottish- Has both traditional and Scottish dishes along with international food. Seafood restaurants- Restaurants servicing fish and sea food Thai- the cuisine is spicy and served with strong aromatic ingredients Vegetarian restaurants- Food served without meat and fish Some of the brands in U.K are classified based on the brands owned by celebrity chefs and brands that propagate certain ideas. Jamies Italian by Chef Jamie Oliver, Rick Steins Padstow, Delia Smiths Delias Restaurant and Bar, Chef Heston Blumenthals Fat Duck, Antony Worall Thompsons The Grey Hound, Gordon Ramsay Holdings, Gary Rhodes W1 restaurant are some of the restaurant brands opened by celebrity chefs. Gordon Ramsay Brand Gordon Ramsay brands are one of the most celebrated restaurant brands throughout the globe. Most of the Gordon Ramsay brands are in United Kingdom, a few in America, Tokyo and Dubai. Gordon Ramsays restaurants are well known for its services and the great food. His restaurants have been awarded 3 Michelin stars and he himself has been awarded 10 Michelin stars. The Gordon Ramsay restaurants in U.K are Restaurant Gordon Ramsay, Petrus, Gordon Ramsay at Claridges, Angella Hartnet at the Connaught, The Savoy grill, Banquet, Boxwood cafà ©, Maze, La Noisette. Gordon Ramsay restaurants offer a mix of French, European, American and Asian cuisines. In 1998 Ramsay quit Aubergine restaurant which he co-owned with A-Z restaurants. He won Aubergine restaurant three Michelin stars. In 1991 he opened the Petrus restaurant in London which later won a Michelin star. Amaryllis in Glasgows One Devonshire Gardens hotel was opened by Gordon Ramsay Holdings in April 2001, which was awarded a Michelin star in January 2002. In October 2001 the group opened Gordon Ramsay at Claridge and won a Michlen star in 2001 for London restaurant. In October 2002, the food and beverages operation at Londons Connaught hotel was taken over by Gordon Ramsay Holdings. In May 2003, Wareing took over Savoy Grill. Ramsay opened the Boxwood Cafà © in Berkeley Hotel. In December 2003 Wareing moves Petrus into the Berkeley. In December 2003, Wareing opened theBaquette above Savoy Grill. In May 2005, Gordon Ramsay Holding has opened Maze at the London Mariott Hotel Grosvenor Square in London. The total number of staff in Gordon Holdings is more than 900. Tragus Holdings Tragus Holdings is one of UKs largest independent restaurant operators. It serves more than 12 million meals each year with 160 mid- market restaurants. The company was formed in 2002, through the  £25m acquisition of the Pelican Group and Bright Reasons Group from Whitbread. The key brands are Cafà © Rouge, Strada and Bella Italia. Other brands include Mama Amalfi, Amalfi, Abbaye, Oriel, Leadenhall Wine and Tapas bar. The company rolled out Huxleys Bar and Kitchen at Heathrow. The company is backed by Blackstone Group private firm. In May 2010, the group opened 15 new sites across three key brands and plans to open around 20 new sites in the current financial year. The group considers the expansion of the brands as the key to profitability. Tragus wants to ensure the quality of the sites to ensure its brand image. Tragus found the recession period challenging due to the poor economic conditions and the poor consumer spend. There have been a strong promotional activity along with the quality of service which contributed to the growth of the brand. Tragus employs 7300 people and has an equal opportunities policy. Tragus invests a considerable amount in training and they have their own in-house training department. Trags encourages feedback on the menus from customers as well as from nutrition experts. The organization promotes healthy eating habits in joint with other industry players which cover procurement kitchen practices, menu planning and information. They provide nutritional information including calorific content to the customers. Trends A key trend for restaurateurs is the availability of external funding in the shape of venture capital firms resulting in large number of mergers and acquisitions, but at the same time there are plenty of opportunities for independent operators. The industry has to satisfy the increasing demand due to dual income households, increased number of working women, rise in the number of old consumers. London, Manchester, Birmingham, Bristol are the some of the hubs of the UK market scene. Future Prospects The restaurateurs are forced at increasing the levels of service, especially outside London. There is a prospect for increased market segmentation because of mergers and acquisitions. The main challenges going forward will be satisfying the changing consumer tastes and expectations. Consumers want cleaner restaurants, efficient and friendlier service, and low prices. Women opt for cleaner restaurants than men do. For the UK restaurant industry, understanding what the consumer wants and then delivering it is the biggest challenge with more attraction towards branded chains. Methodology The two brands Gordon Ramsay and Tragus have been considered for our analysis here. A questionnaire was created to estimate the brand awareness, the brand personality affecting the customer perception, major factors affecting the brand personality and the impact of these brands as a marketing tool for business. A simple random sample of customers of both brands was selected to whom the questionnaire was circulated. The various factors have been discussed in the analysis given below. ANALYSIS. (The below analysis of the comparison of the Gordon Ramsay brand and the Tragus group based on customer feedback. The questions and the feedback of the customers are discussed below.) What is the main problem you faced at a) Gordon Ramsay b) Tragus? For Gordon Ramsay Holdings 45% of the respondents mentioned, other problems that they faced while using the services. 43% of the respondents found no problems with the service of Tragus. Which area do you think needs most improvement? The responses are as shown above. Majority of the customers have demanded for more variety for Gordon Ramsay brand. For Tragus, most customers demanded for low prices. What do you think the Unique selling Proposition of a) Gordon Ramsay b) Tragus? 26% of the respondents chose food as the Unique selling Proposition of Tragus Brand and for Gordon Ramsay; majority has chosen others, which is the chef himself as the brand image. How do you compare the services at Gordon Ramsay with Tragus? The respondents were asked to compare the services at Tragus and Gordon Ramsay. It can be seen that quality of food almost tops for both the groups. What in Gordon Ramsay brand attracts you more? The respondents were asked to choose the service that attracted more in the Gordon Ramsay brand. 6Which brand of Tragus attracts you more? The respondents were asked to choose the popular brands within the Tragus brand. It was found that Bella Italia was most popular among the customers. Do you think Gordon Ramsays personality has an impact on Gordon Ramsay restaurant brand? 68% of the respondents feel that the chef Gordon Ramsay has a direct influence on the brands image. Do you think brand name prompts you to go to Tragus? 54% of the respondents feel that the name Tragus prompts them to go to the restaurant. It is evident that the brand name has a direct impact on the minds of people. DISCUSSION Gordon Ramsay- The brand value Chef Gordon Ramsay is the force behind the 28 restaurants belonging to Gordon Ramsay Holdings. The Gordon Ramsay Holdings reported a pre-tax loss of  £4.3 million in 2008. He has published a vast array of cookery books and owns a catering school. Though the company has suffered in the recession hit economic climate and by the negative publicity about Ramsays public affairs Gordon Ramsay Holdings appear to be resilient and has reinforced a successful risk mitigation strategy. GRH had diversified the risk and helped to secure income streams through the opening of three pubs and several mid-priced maze grills. The organization forged strong partnership with a private equity firm in the global hotel and catering industry called Blackstone group. The critical element of GRHs internationalization is Ramsays television career since 2004 that has popularized the chef and the brand throughout the world. The passionate and aggressive leadership style in these shows gives the Gordon Ramsay br and a competitive advantage which represents the over all DNA of the group. Ramsay has been quick to find and nurture talent throughout his shows and this skill has proved to be the core capability of GRH. The sense of teambuilding and promoting from within has fostered a high level of loyalty among the staff. 85% of the staff from 1993 is still employed in the business. He has been able to inspire and engage with his tough but lovable approach to management. GRH recognizes the dream of its ambitious chefs by allowing them to open subsidiaries. The company lost  £850,000 when it closed the pengelley restaurant in Londons Knight bridge in 2005. The failure was aggravated when he employed a executive chef from outside GRH. In 2006, the GRHs London Hotel in New York suffered late opening due to delays, it received poor reviews and the head chef had to be replaced. Soon it was transformed and gained two Michlen stars. In 2008, Ramsay opened his first Parisian restaurant, Versailles at the Trianon Palace Hotel but suffered a loss of of  £1.78 million and was soon closed down. Ramsay is the face of the organization without doubt, and his actions in restaurant and televisions have impacted GRH. There has been nothing like Brand Ramsay in the world of cooking before. Ramsays position rest on two bases, the restaurant and as a media person. Tragus The brand value Tragus adopts a strategy of organic growth by opening new restaurants. It also aims at continually improving the existing brands through menu development and more investment into the group. It sees improved profitability through disciplined management and use of technology in its business. Tragus aims at providing more training and development programmes to its people and excellent customer service. It aims at acquiring groups of sites, which can enhance the portfolio. It looks at new opportunities and style of eating. The menu content has been regularly reviewed and has controlled the cost increases through regular retendering of the contracts. The company had adopted a good labour management system that can leverage the efficiencies. A new commercial and marketing structure was implemented in 2010 to improve the marketing activities of the group. The group also focuses on investing in the estate so that the best standards of presentation are meet. They have focused more on the Strada brand to maintain the contemporary image and the best quality of food. The group finds the brands, the pricing points and the value for money offerings as their competitive advantage. The group sees a growth potential for all the three brands Bella Italia, Strata and Cafà © Rouge. Tragus considers its people as the most important ingredient to its success. Tragus considers its corporate social responsibility as a priority. The group in relation with its suppliers tries to reduce the impact on the environment. They have promoted initiatives in mainly three areas -waste and recycling, energy saving, and food and drink. The company tries to find additional ways of recycling. The company has a central distribution center giving a single drop-off point for recyclable material. The trucks, which deliver food and drinks, while returning collect, used cooking oil, plastics and cardboard. The company tries to reduce their dependency on paper by using voice recognition technology. The company is working on a 100% recycling scheme for their restaurants. The company aims at energy saving by reducing the electricity use by 10% in the restaurants. All the Tragus brands run smart meters to view accurate usage of electricity. The company has undertaken multi disciplinary project to review the energy consumption across all the restaurants. The company supplies filtered tap water to all customers at Strada. The company uses Belu, UKs first carbon neutral water. The company also has served the community by working with organizations like Great Ormond street, Marie curie, children in need, etc. The company sees a brand risk through food scarce or a slow decline in a brands appeal to its customers, which can be met through efficient operations. The risk on the brands appeal can be met through continuous menu innovation, marketing campaigns and brand development. The company finds the market to be highly competitive especially in service offering, product quality and price. The marketing teams monitor the market offering and pricing on an ongoing basis. The group undertakes a regular mystery diner visits to all restaurants to ensure that the standards of the menu and customer service are met. There is a rolling renovation programme to all the present estates. Tragus has laid out the following aims as a part of its Brand building Creating a standout differentiation Establishing and delivering a compelling idea Focus and direction A clear proposition Tone of voice Compelling brand levers Defining customer segments Tragus wants its customers to keep dining, repeat business, try new dishes and menu items, trade up, and spread the message to others. Tragus wants to know more about consumers, wants to convert them to customers, Drive brand loyalty, not just voucher loyalty. Tragus believes that Brand development gives conversation rationale, but service execution is all. RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the analysis and the market study done for the both the brands of restaurants, the following suggestions can be recommended. Looking to the future the GRHs focus should be survival and selective growth due to the economic slowdown. Both Gordon Ramsay and Tragus groups should focus on the standard of goods supplied by third parties. Any suppliers who do not satisfy the minimum standards should be delisted. Both companies should try to retain the best talent at both restaurant and head office level The organizations should keep a check on the price of key raw materials and wages There should be strong financial and operational review and financial reviews There should be essential funding available for the operational purposes hence essential contracts needs to be maintained. The organizations should be careful about the risk of fraud existing in the misappropriation of assets, including cash banking. This should be mitigated through management structure, regular financial review and extensive use of business reviews. There should be regular financial audits carried out in the organizations There should be continuous monitoring of the marketing, brand strategies and pricing. The groups should regularly review the products and involve the customers in improving the value for money offering me

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Life In Ancient Greece :: essays research papers

‘What it was like to be poor, unemployed and homeless in 1930s USA.’ For an American to go without food for more than a day to us seems unimaginable. The country that so many see as the world leader today, has not always been as strong though. Less than 70 years ago many poor, homeless and unemployed Americans were starving to death. What they went through could be compared to some of the less well off nations today. To begin to understand the plight of the poor, homeless and unemployed American of the depression I will place an average Melbourne family into that situation. To begin with, take away the house. Banks reclaimed a large number of houses of those who could not keep up the repayments. If this is a lucky family they may have a car to sleep in. Usually this car is a battered old Ford or Chevy; the car doesn’t go very well. That doesn’t matter though because they probably can’t afford petrol anyway. The family will then have to beg for food for dinner. If they are too proud to beg they will try to sell apples or other items on the sidewalls, if they still have nothing to eat they will queue for many hours in bread lines organised by the city charities. This family will most likely live from their car or move into one of the Hoovervilles. In this Hooverville they will live like many other families, in a house made from packing cases and corrugated iron. Disease is rife here and few are able to get medical help. There is however no shortage of water. When it rains it comes under the walls and through the roof drenching everything inside. News travels slowly amongst the poor, most people hear what is going on in the world by word of mouth. Or by reading a week old paper that they are using to stop their roof leaking. During the winters it is bitterly cold. Children search through junkyards for old cars, which might have a little bit of oil in them. If they are lucky they will be warm for the night. Men have to work extremely hard. That is if they have a job. Unemployment is high; 12 to 15 million are without jobs. Men walk all day in search of work. If they are lucky they might find some. The pay is bad and the conditions are bad, but they don’t complain.